According to the American Psychological Association (APA) (n.d.), "[t]rauma is an emotional response to a terrible event like an accident, rape or natural disaster. Immediately after the event, shock and denial are typical. Longer term reactions include unpredictable emotions, flashbacks, strained relationships and even physical symptoms like headaches or nausea. While these feelings are normal, some people have difficulty moving on with their lives."
APA. (n.d.). Trauma. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/topics/trauma/
Click on the following links to read descriptions from the National Insitute of Mental Health (NIMH) concerning the following topics:
Stress is a normal response to life, but long-term stress can be harmful if not "managed," especially when unhelpful coping patterns emerge and are reinforced.
The U.S. National Library of Medicine (n.d.) Stress and your health. Retrieved from
Individuals can experience a slew of experiences from birth until 18 (childhood), and many of those experiences are considered adverse and can have a significant impact on health.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, April 2). Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Retrieved from
Felitti, V.J., Anda, R.F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., . . . Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.
Somatic Experiencing (SE)
The Somatic Experiencing Trauma Institute (SETI) (n.d.) describes how the SE method can be utilized to "heal trauma and other stress disorders."
SETI. (n.d.). What is Somatic Experiencing? Retrieved from https://traumahealing.org/about-us/
Payne, P., Levine, P., & Crane-Godreau, M. A. (2015). Somatic experiencing: Using interoception and proprioception as core elements of trauma therapy. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(93), 1–18.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
According to the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (n.d.), "[a]nyone can develop PTSD at any age. A number of factors can increase the chance that someone will have PTSD, many of which are not under that person's control. [...] Personal factors, like previous traumatic exposure, age, and gender, can affect whether or not a person will develop PTSD. What happens after the traumatic event is also important. Stress can make PTSD more likely, while social support can make it less likely."
VA. (2020, January 7). PTSD basics. Retrieved from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/understand/what/ptsd_basics.asp
Substance Use Disorders & ADDICTION